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Trump: 12 Geschworene halten ihn in 34 Fällen für schuldig

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USA - 31.05.2024 - von cbs news, Melissa Quinn

Der ehemalige Präsident Trumpf wurde am Donnerstag (New York Times) in New York in 34 Fällen wegen Fälschung von Geschäftsunterlagen im Zusammenhang mit einer „Schweigegeld“-Zahlung an den Pornostar Stormy Daniels verurteilt, was ihn nicht davon abhalten kann, Präsident zu werden, wenn die Wähler ihn wieder ins Amt wählen.
Die Verfassung sieht nur wenige Voraussetzungen für die Präsidentschaft vor - ein Kandidat muss mindestens 35 Jahre alt sein, die natürliche Staatsbürgerschaft besitzen und seit mindestens 14 Jahren in den USA leben. Sie sagt nichts darüber aus, wie sich eine Verurteilung wegen eines Verbrechens auf die Fähigkeit eines Präsidenten auswirkt, sein Amt auszuüben.
„Die kurze Antwort lautet: Ja, es gibt kein verfassungsrechtliches Hindernis“, so Corey Brettschneider, Jurist und Professor für Politikwissenschaft an der Brown University und Autor von „The Presidents and the People“. „In der Verfassung sind einige spezifische Anforderungen festgelegt... aber in der Verfassung steht nichts darüber, dass eine Verurteilung wegen eines Verbrechens eine Disqualifikation darstellt.“
Es besteht ein weit verbreitetes Verständnis dafür, dass die in der Verfassung aufgeführten Qualifikationen exklusiv sind - das heißt, wir können diesen Qualifikationen nichts hinzufügen", sagte Derek Muller, ein Professor für Wahlrecht an der Universität von Notre Dame. Er fügte hinzu: „Ob man wegen eines Verbrechens verurteilt wurde oder nicht, ist für die Qualifikation unerheblich.“
Jessica Levinson, Verfassungsrechtsprofessorin an der Loyola University und Mitarbeiterin von CBS News, stellte klar und deutlich fest: „Die Verfassung verbietet es nicht, als Präsident zu dienen, wenn man ein verurteilter Verbrecher ist.“

What about the 14th Amendment?
Some states have tried to disqualify Trump under the 14th Amendments insurrection clause in the wake of the Jan. 6, 2021, U.S. Capitol assault. 
Last December, the Colorado Supreme Court allowed Trump to be removed from the primary ballot over 14th Amendment concerns, due to his conduct surrounding Jan. 6. The amendments insurrection clause, the court found, bars insurrectionists who have previously taken an oath to support the Constitution from holding public office. 
But the U.S. Supreme Court reversed the ruling in March, finding that Trump had to be restored to the ballot because only Congress can enforce the insurrection clause. The high courts ruling resolved challenges to Trumps eligibility for office pursued by voters in several other states. 
"Absent a [new] statute that lays out that disqualification, it isnt a bar," Brettschneider said. 
The Constitution gives Congress power to enact laws that would enforce the 3rd section of the 14th Amendment, Brettschneider explained. 

What if Trump is sentenced to prison? 

His sentence may not include prison time, but practically speaking, the implications of a sentence could be more complex if Trump becomes president. 
"You could be convicted of a felony and still not have jail time, right?" Muller said. "You could just have a fine; you could have probation."
But theres no law against running for president and winning an election while imprisoned — or from serving as president from prison. 
If he is sentenced to prison and wins the election, Trumps attorneys might argue that sitting presidents cant be imprisoned, just as Trump has argued that sitting presidents cant be indicted. 
“You could say theres something inherent in the office of president suggesting that states cant incarcerate people serving in federal office or holding those federal officers," Muller said. "Theres a little bit of precedent on this. In some old cases that go back 200 years, there were some disputes about states trying to have cases involving federal officers to remove them from office, and the Supreme Court has been clear that states have no authority to do this."

What about the 25th Amendment?
The 25th Amendment could be a factor, both Muller and Levinson said. 
Section 3 of the 25th Amendment says that "whenever the vice president and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the president pro tempore of the Senate and the speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the president is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the vice president shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as acting president.
"It could be argued that a president who is behind bars is unable to carry out his office, Muller said. Whether a convicted president serving time from behind bars could have a Cabinet confirmed could largely depend on the outcome of Senate elections, said Brandon Johnson, assistant professor at the Nebraska College of Law, who wrote an essay in the Harvard Law Review last year on the topic of a "convict in chief." And if Trump were able to confirm a Cabinet, those members would likely be loyal to him and unwilling to supplant him. 
The 25th Amendment also says "such other body as Congress may by law provide" could get the ball rolling to transmit presidential powers to the vice president, Johnson wrote. 
"The congressional route I think is pretty much going to be a nonstarter too, unless theres a significant change in the 2024 election, because Congress would have to agree to establish this body to begin with to review the presidents fitness for office," Johnson told CBS News. Johnson argues that the most natural reading of the 25th Amendment would seem to require the vice presidents cooperation. 
"But if the vice presidents acquiescence is required, then the creation of a congressional body to declare the president unable to carry out their duties could face the same obstacles," Johnson wrote. 

Could Trump pardon himself from the New York conviction? 
Trump, should he become president, cannot pardon himself from the New York conviction because its a state conviction, rather than a federal one. Presidents are only empowered to pardon federal crimes. 
Trump faces three more criminal cases — a state indictment in Georgia over alleged attempts to overturn the election; a federal indictment in Florida over his handling of classified documents; and a federal indictment in Washington, D.C., over alleged efforts to overturn the presidential election. 
– Melissa Quinn contributed to this report.
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Quelle: cbs news, CNN